Valeriano Weyler Papers
1970.0006

Summary Information

Repository
Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries
Creator
Weyler, Valeriano
Title
Valeriano Weyler Papers
ID
1970.0006
Date [inclusive]
1863-1930
Extent
4.5 Linear feet
Language of Materials
Spanish
Abstract
The collection includes administrative, military and personal correspondence between Valeriano Weyler and several individuals during his years as a pubic officer of the Spanish Government.

Preferred Citation

[Item, Folder #], Valeriano Weyler Papers. Archives and Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries.

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Biography

Valeriano Weyler, a descendant of a military family, was born on 17 September 1837, in  Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Wanting to follow the steps of his father, a military physician, Valeriano enrolled in the Spanish Army. In 1853, he enrolled in the  Tercera Compañía del Colegio de Infanteria de Toledo (Third Infantry Company of Toledo - Spain) and after a few years he received the rank of second lieutenant. Years later, he entered the  Escuela de Estado Mayor (School of the Chiefs of the Army).

In March 1863, he was sent to Cuba as a  Comandante del Cuerpo de Estado Mayor del Ejercito de Cuba (Chief of the Cuban Army). The Spanish government was looking for candidates to take military control of the last bastions of the Spanish Empire in  Latin America but few wanted to face the risk of yellow fever in  Cuba, which was devastating the population. However, Weyler considered this a great opportunity. At twenty-six years old he had the chance to become a commander, while his fellows of the Military School at Toledo were still lieutenants. Once in  Cuba, he received the news about a revolt in Santo Domingo and Weyler requested a transfer to  Santo Domingo to take control of the insurgents.

Having been liberated, first from Spain (1821) and then from  Haiti (1844),  Santo Domingo suffered from ongoing attacks of Haitian guerrillas. Since the end of the eighteenth century,  Haiti, a colony of the French government, was having constant revolts that threatened the newly independent country of  Santo Domingo. In light of this situation, the conservative government of  Santo Domingo asked the Spanish Crown to accept them as a colony again. The Spanish Prime Minister,  Antonio Canovas, appointed Weyler to end the revolt. The situation in  Santo Domingo provided Weyler with the experience to develop his military tactics in a jungle battlefield. The Spanish Military Army decorated him with the  Cruz Laureada de San Fernando (Laureate Cross of Saint Fernand), the highest medal of the Spanish Army during a combat, for his efficient handling of the guerrillas in  Santo Domingo. In September of 1865, he was appointed as an  Estado Mayor (Army Chief) in  Puerto Rico, which was a minor Captaincy General.

In October of 1868, Cuba experienced a rebellion of the Creole oligarchy against Spanish domination. The insurrection was lead by  Carlos Manuel Cespedes, a landowner, who was supported by the freed slaves of his own plantation. Weyler was sent to  Cuba by the Spanish government to fight against the insurrection. This stage of Cuba's struggle for independence continued for a decade, known as the "Ten Years' War".

Later Weyler was appointed chief of the battalion Cazadores de Balmaceda. At this time he wrote about military tactics and new war strategies as well as documenting his theories and views on  Cuba war. He was the first military officer to define the  Guerra de Guerrillas. Following his appointment with the Cazadores, he was ranked as Brigadier and sent to Port Princess in  Haiti.

Years later Weyler returned to Spain, and as soon as he arrived he was assigned to fight in the Carlista War. The Spanish Government recognized his service as demonstrated in the Bocairente Battle, and in recognition of his accomplishments, he was appointed Field Marshal. In 1875, Weyler was sent to the  Canary Islands as a General Captain. His rank permitted him to go to the Senate as a representative of Canary Island. Subsequently, he received a lifetime nomination as Senator.

In 1883, he was sent to Baleares Islands and then to the  Philippines where fought against the rebellion of  Talagos, a native indigenous uprising. When he came back to  Spain, he was again appointed as a Captain General and served in different regions of  Spain. In Cataluña, he faced anarchist attacks in Barcelona.

Following these actions, he returned to Cuba as a Chief of the Army. This time his mission was to stop the revolt lead by  Antonio Maceo. Weyler ruled his officers with an iron hand. To deal with Cuban guerrillas, Weyler instituted a policy of herding the rural population into garrisoned towns, where they could be controlled and the Cuban guerrillas could not recruit or use them for support. His name was synonymous with fear, and this policy caused considerable suffering to the civilian population. Spanish liberals began to criticize Weyler's policies, as did the American press. The  United States government identified him as a bloodthirsty commander and asked the Spanish Government for Weyler's discharge. After that, Weyler began to lose ground politically. The situation was exacerbated when the Filipino rebellion drained Spanish troops out of  Cuba. In 1897 with the assassination of Prime Minister  Antonio Canovas, Weyler lost his political influence. He again returned to  Spain, where he died in Madrid in 1930.

Valeriano Weyler is a significant figure in Spanish history and one of the most controversial. Throughout the years, historical opinion has identified him as both a heroic officer and as a bloody and defeated general, particularly because of his actions during his years in  Cuba.

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Scope and Content

The collection includes administrative, military, and personal correspondence between Valeriano Weyler and several individuals during his years as a public officer of the Spanish Government. There are letters and documents from governors, missionaries, and other officials in the Philippines. Newspaper clippings, military documents and hospital records for his years in Canary Islands. It also includes manuscripts, typescripts and reports concerning the activities of the Ten Years War in Cuba, the Carlista War in Spain, the Philippine Guerrillas War, and Barcelona disturbance between 1910 and 1913. Moreover, there are also certificates of merit and offices held by Weyler throughout his career as a Military Attaché in Cuba,  Santo Domingo,  Haiti,  Philippines,  Valencia and  Cataluña.

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Organization

The arrangement of the papers is chronological and geographical for all Series. The collection was divided in three series arranged by chronological order. Inside each series it was divided into subseries arranged by the geographical destination of Valeriano Weyler.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

 Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries May 2002

University of Connecticut Libraries
405 Babbidge Road Unit 1205
Storrs, Connecticut, 06269-1205
860.486.2524
archives@uconn.edu

Access

The collection is open and available for research.

Restrictions on Use

Permission to publish from these Papers must be obtained in writing from both the University of Connecticut Library and the Owner(s) of the Copyright.

Custodial History

Unknown, possible purchase.

Location of Copies or Alternate Formats

Digital reproductions of selected materials in this collection may also be found in the Archives & Special Collections digital repository.

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Related Materials

Related Material

Archives & Special Collections has a substantial collection of materials pertaining to Latin American history and culture. For detailed information on these collections please contact the curator or ask at the Reading Room desk.

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Bibliography

Diccionario de Historia de España. Dirigida por German Bleiberg. Tomo Tercero N-Z.  Madrid:  Ediciones de la Revista de Occidente, 1968-1969.Cardona, Gabriel y Juan Carlos Losada. Weyler, nuestro hombre en La Habana.  Barcelona, España:  Planeta, 1997.Mínguez, Bernardino Martín. Política y militarismo; defensa del general Weyler, cuestión palpitante y transcendental.  Madrid:  Impr. de los Hijos de M. G. Hernández, 1897.Weyler, Valeriano 1838-1930. Mi mando en Cuba (10 febrero 1896 á 31 octubre 1897): historia militar y política de la última guerra separatista durante dicho mando, por el general Weyler.  Madrid:  F. González Rojas, 1910-11.

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Collection Inventory

Administrative and Military Documentation, 1863-1897 

Cuba, Santo Domingo and Haiti, 1863-1897 

Cuba 

Army section in Cuba Island, 1863 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 1

Army section in Cuba Island, 1864 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 2

Army section in Cuba Island, 1865 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 3

Army section in Cuba Island, 1866 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 4

Army section in Cuba Island, 1867 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 5

Army section in Cuba Island, 1869 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 6

Army section in Cuba Island, 1870 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 7

Cazadores de Balmaceda Battalion, 1870 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 8

Cazadores de Balmaceda Battalion, 1871 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 9

Army section in Cuba Island, 1871 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 10

Army section in Cuba Island, 1872 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 11

Cazadores de Balmaceda Battalion, 1872 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 12

Rent bills, 1872-1873 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 13

Military ranks obtained in Cuba, 1872 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 14

Military issues in Cuba, 1872-1874 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 15

Newspaper clippings, 1872-1873 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 16

Army section in Cuba Island, 1873 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 17

Military issues in Cuba, 1896-1897 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 18

Santo Domingo 

Operation Army Division , 1864 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 19

Puerto Rico 

Captaincy General, 1866-1867 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 20

Haiti 

High Court of Army in Port Prince, 1872 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 21

High Court of Army in Port Prince, 1873 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1 22

Spain: Valencia and Cataluña, 1870-1878 

Valencia 

Box

Military promotions and examinations, 1870 

2:23

Carlista War 

Box

Operation Brigade, 1873 

2:24

Telegraphic Dispatch Station, 1873 

2:25

Captaincy General of Valencia, 1873 

2:26

Army of Valencia District, 1873 

2:27

Pinar del Rincon Battle, 1873 

2:28

Bocairente Battle, 1873 

2:29

Telegrams from and to Valencia, 1873-1874 

2:30

Captaincy General 

Box

Military promotion, 1874 

2:31

Indictment, 1876 

2:32

Appointments, 1878 

2:33

Cataluña 

Carlista War 

Box

Operation Diary of Cataluña, 1874 

2:34

Cataluña Army, 1874 

2:35

Telegrams from and to Cataluña, 1874-1875 

2:36

Clot de Mala Mata Battle, 1874 

2:37

Canary Islands, 1879-1885 

Box

Datum plane, undated 

3:38

Captaincy General Accounting, 1879 

3:39

Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1879 

3:40

Las Palmas Municipality, 1879-1880 

3:41

National Guard Inspection of Canary Islands Accounting, 1879-1881 

3:42

Captaincy General Accounting, 1880 

3:43

Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1880 

3:44

Provisional Battalion of Canary Islands Accounting, 1880-1883 

3:45

Newspaper clippings about Canary Islands Government, 1880-1883 

3:46

Pamphlets and Bulletins, 1880-1885 

3:47

Captaincy General Accounting, 1881 

3:48

Telegrams from and to Canary Islands, 1881 

3:49

Administrative records Ministry of War, 1881-1882 

3:50

Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1881-1882 

3:51

Captaincy General Accounting, 1882 July - September 

3:52

Captaincy General Accounting, 1882 October - December 

3:53

Weyler's farewell , 1883 

3:54

Captaincy General Accounting, 1883 January - February 

3:55

Captaincy General Accounting, 1883 March - June 

3:56

Captaincy General Accounting, 1883 October - November 

3:57

Philippines, undated, 1886-1891 

Recommendations 

Box

Residents A - F, undated 

4:58

Residents G - L, undated 

4:59

Residents M - Q, undated 

4:60

Residents R - Z, undated 

4:61

Officials A - Z, undated 

4:62

Aspirant officials A - Z, undated 

4:63
Box

Civil and Military Government, Spain and Philippines, undated 

4:64

Tobacco General Company , undated 

4:65

Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1886 

4:66

Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1887 

4:67

Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1888 

4:68

Civil and Military Government, 1888 

4:69

General Government of Manila, 1888 

4:70

Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Philippines, 1888 

4:71

Consulate of France, 1888 

4:72

Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1888 

4:73

Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1888 

4:74

Civil and Military Government, 1889 

5:75

Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1889 

5:76

Codina Company, 1889 

5:77

Chinese Immigration, 1889 

5:78

General Government of Manila, 1889 

5:79

General Government, High Court of Justice, Manila, 1889-1890 

5:80

General Government, High Court of Justice, Cebu, 1889-1891 

5:81

Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1889 

5:82

Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1889 

5:83

Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1890 

5:84

Civil and Military Government Administrative Records, 1890 

5:85

Civil and Military Government Administrative Records, 1890 

5:86

General Government of Manila, 1890 

5:87

Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Philippines, 1890 

5:88

General Intendancy of Public Treasury of Philippines, 1890 

5:89

Newspaper clipping "La Voz de España", 1890 

5:90

Civil Guard, 1890 

5:91

General Government of Philippines, Recommendations, 1890 

5:92

General Government of Philippines, Recommendations, 1891 

5:93

Civil and Military Government, 1891 

5:94

Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1891 

5:95

Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Philippines, 1891 

5:96

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Political, military, civil and religious government documentation, 1860-1930 

Philippines, 1888-1891 

Religious 

Correspondence (from and to) 

Box

San Juan de Dios, 1888 

6:97

Nueva Caceres Bishop, 1888-1889 

6:98

San Juan de Letran Order, 1889-1890 

6:99

Capuchins Order, 1889-1890 

6:100

Dominican Order, 1889-1890 

6:101
Box

Missions Administrative Records, 1889 

6:102

Missions Administrative Records, 1890 

6:103

Missions Administrative Records, 1891 

6:104

Political-military 

Political and military government of 

Box

La Abra, 1888 

6:105

Islas Visayas, 1888 

6:106

Cebu, 1888 

6:107

Carolinas Occidentales, 1888 

6:108

Carolinas Orientales, 1888 

6:109

Floilo, 1888 

6:110

Archipielago de Tolo, 1888 

6:111

Cavite, 1888 

6:112

Tarlac, 1888 

6:113

Mindanao, 1888 

6:114

Mindoro, 1888 

6:115

La Union, 1888 

6:116

Flocos Norte, 1888 

6:117

Flocos Sur, 1889 

6:118

Camerines Norte, 1889 

6:119

Pangasinan, 1888-1889 

6:120

Coltabato, 1889-1890 

6:121

La Paragua, 1889-1891 

6:122

Isla de Negros, 1888-1889 

6:123

Cataluña, undated, 1909-1930 

Political-military 

Box

Captaincy General of Cataluña, undated 

7:124

Campaign military operations in Cataluña, undated 

7:125

Civil government of Barcelona, undated, 1910 

7:126

Barcelona strike, 1909-1910 

7:127

Military Hospital of Barcelona, 1901-1913 

7:128

Captaincy General of Cataluña, Amnesty Letter, 1909 

7:129

Somatenes Armados de Cataluña, 1909 

7:130

Captaincy General of Cataluña, Political Letters, 1910 

7:131

Captaincy General of Cataluña, Accounting, 1910 

7:132

Captaincy General of the 4th Region, Accounting, 1910 

7:133

Infantry regiment, 1910 

7:134

Military exception of reservist, 1910 

7:135

Captaincy General of the 5th Region, 1910 

7:136

Prime Minster Council, 1910-1911 

7:137

Miltary Government of Gerona, 1910, 1914 

7:138

Captaincy General of the 5th Region, Accounting, 1911 

7:139

Captaincy General of the 5th Region, Political Letters, 1911 

7:140

Captaincy General of Cataluña, Military and social issues, 1911-1912 

7:141

Captaincy General of the 4th Region, Diary of orders, 1912 

7:142

Army Veterinary Corps of the 4th Region, 1912 

7:143

Captaincy General of the 4th Region, Expenses, 1912 

7:144

3rd Brigade of Cazadores, 1912 

7:145

Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1912 

8:146

Barcelona Government, Telegrams, 1912-1915 

8:147

Captaincy General of the 4th Region, Accounting, 1913 

8:148

Captaincy General of Cataluña, Political Letters, 1913 

8:149

Barcelona strike, Telegrams, 1913 

8:150

Barcelona strike, Letters, reports and information, 1913 

8:151

Barcelona Government, 1913 

8:152

Alcover and Villalonga revolt, 1913 

8:153

Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1914 

8:154

Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1915 

8:155

Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1919 

8:156

Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1920 

8:157

Army Chief Staff of Madrid, 1921 

8:158

Cavalcanty Chief Army Correspondence, 1923 

8:159

Civil 

Box

Barcelona University, 1910 

8:160

Visit to Manlleu Village, 1911 

8:161

National Lottery, 1911 

8:162

Compañia de los Caminos de Hierro del Sur de España, 1911-1912 

8:163

Sociedad General de Mercurioo de Sierra Nevada, 1912 

8:164

Remonta Nacional, 1913 

8:165

Special Letter from Madero President of Mexico, 1913 

8:166

Intituto Agricolo Catalan, 1913 

8:167

King of Spain's trip to Cataluña, 1920 

8:168

Movimiento Societario, 1920 

8:169

Anonymous letter, 1930 

8:170

Spain, 1860-1920 

Box

Military 

Box

Army, Balear Islands, 1860-1863 

8:171

Army School, 1860-1867 

8:172

Captaincy General Castilla La Nueva, 1862, 1872-1875 

8:173

San Fernando military order , 1866 March 16 

8:174

Military Army, Logroño, 1874 

8:175

Military Army, War Ministry, Madrid, 1872-1878 

9:176

Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1889 

9:177

Political 

Box

Encomienda Isabel La Catolica, 1870 

9:178

Gran Cruz de la Orden de San Militar de San Hermenegildo, 1886 

9:179

Cruz de la Orden de San Fernando, 1898 

9:180

Bills in favor of Don Pedro Murias, 1898 

9:181

Printed Material 

Box

San Fernando Order Statutes, 1863 

9:182

War Ministry (Madrid), Liquidation of all military corps, 1886 

9:183

General Administration of the Military Army, Disposition, 1887 

9:184

Invitation to Junta de Auxilio, 1909 

9:185

State Session Diary, 1912 

8:186

Partido Socialista Monarquico flyer, 1919 

9:187

Representative Session Diary, 1920 

9:188

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Personal Records, undated, 1866-1928 

Box

Valeriano Weyler's sister, undated 

9:189

Personal Letters, undated 

9:190

Valeriano Weyler's mother's letter, 1866 

9:191

Personal Letters, 1888 April 

9:192

Personal Letters, 1888 May 

9:193

Personal Letters, 1888 June 

9:194

Personal Letters, 1888 July 

9:195

Personal Letters, 1888 August 

9:196

Personal Letters, 1888 September 

9:197

Personal Letters, 1888 October 

9:198

Sor Maria Asumpta, 1912 

9:199

Pablo Blas y Pascual, 1928 

9:200

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