TABLE OF CONTENTS


Overview of the Collection

Biography

Scope and Content

Organization

Restrictions

Related Material

Administrative Information

Bibliography

Detailed Description

Administrative and Military Documentation, 1863-1897

Political, military, civil and religious government documentation, 1860-1930

Personal Records, undated, 1866-1928






Valeriano Weyler Papers



Finding aid prepared by Mildred F. Lopez.

Finding aid encoded by Betsy Pittman in May 2002.





Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center

405 Babbidge Road, Unit 1205

Storrs, Connecticut 06269-1205

URL http://doddcenter.uconn.edu

© University of Connecticut



Overview of the Collection

Repository: Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Center.
Creator: Weyler, Valeriano.
Title: Valeriano Weyler Papers.
Dates: 1863-1930.
Extent: 4.5 linear feet.
Record Series: MSS19700006
Language Spanish.
Abstract: The collection includes administrative, military and personal correspondence between Valeriano Weyler and several individuals during his years as a pubic officer of the Spanish Government.

Biography

Valeriano Weyler, a descendant of a military family, was born on 17 September 1837, in Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Wanting to follow the steps of his father, a military physician, Valeriano enrolled in the Spanish Army. In 1853, he enrolled in the Tercera Compañía del Colegio de Infanteria de Toledo (Third Infantry Company of Toledo - Spain) and after a few years he received the rank of second lieutenant. Years later, he entered the Escuela de Estado Mayor (School of the Chiefs of the Army).

In March 1863, he was sent to Cuba as a Comandante del Cuerpo de Estado Mayor del Ejercito de Cuba (Chief of the Cuban Army). The Spanish government was looking for candidates to take military control of the last bastions of the Spanish Empire in Latin America but few wanted to face the risk of yellow fever in Cuba, which was devastating the population. However, Weyler considered this a great opportunity. At twenty-six years old he had the chance to become a commander, while his fellows of the Military School at Toledo were still lieutenants. Once inCuba, he received the news about a revolt in Santo Domingo and Weyler requested a transfer to Santo Domingo to take control of the insurgents.

Having been liberated, first from Spain (1821) and then from Haiti (1844), Santo Domingo suffered from ongoing attacks of Haitian guerrillas. Since the end of the eighteenth century, Haiti, a colony of the French government, was having constant revolts that threatened the newly independent country of Santo Domingo. In light of this situation, the conservative government of Santo Domingo asked the Spanish Crown to accept them as a colony again. The Spanish Prime Minister, Antonio Canovas, appointed Weyler to end the revolt. The situation in Santo Domingo provided Weyler with the experience to develop his military tactics in a jungle battlefield. The Spanish Military Army decorated him with the Cruz Laureada de San Fernando (Laureate Cross of Saint Fernand), the highest medal of the Spanish Army during a combat, for his efficient handling of the guerrillas in Santo Domingo. In September of 1865, he was appointed as an Estado Mayor (Army Chief) in Puerto Rico, which was a minor Captaincy General.

In October of 1868, Cuba experienced a rebellion of the Creole oligarchy against Spanish domination. The insurrection was lead by Carlos Manuel Cespedes, a landowner, who was supported by the freed slaves of his own plantation. Weyler was sent to Cuba by the Spanish government to fight against the insurrection. This stage of Cuba's struggle for independence continued for a decade, known as the "Ten Years' War".

Later Weyler was appointed chief of the battalion Cazadores de Balmaceda. At this time he wrote about military tactics and new war strategies as well as documenting his theories and views on Cuba war. He was the first military officer to define the Guerra de Guerrillas. Following his appointment with the Cazadores, he was ranked as Brigadier and sent to Port Princess in Haiti.

Years later Weyler returned to Spain, and as soon as he arrived he was assigned to fight in the Carlista War. The Spanish Government recognized his service as demonstrated in the Bocairente Battle, and in recognition of his accomplishments, he was appointed Field Marshal. In 1875, Weyler was sent to the Canary Islands as a General Captain. His rank permitted him to go to the Senate as a representative of Canary Island. Subsequently, he received a lifetime nomination as Senator.

In 1883, he was sent to Baleares Islands and then to the Philippines where fought against the rebellion of Talagos, a native indigenous uprising. When he came back to Spain, he was again appointed as a Captain General and served in different regions of Spain. In Cataluña, he faced anarchist attacks in Barcelona.

Following these actions, he returned to Cuba as a Chief of the Army. This time his mission was to stop the revolt lead by Antonio Maceo. Weyler ruled his officers with an iron hand. To deal with Cuban guerrillas, Weyler instituted a policy of herding the rural population into garrisoned towns, where they could be controlled and the Cuban guerrillas could not recruit or use them for support. His name was synonymous with fear, and this policy caused considerable suffering to the civilian population. Spanish liberals began to criticize Weyler's policies, as did the American press. The United States government identified him as a bloodthirsty commander and asked the Spanish Government for Weyler's discharge. After that, Weyler began to lose ground politically. The situation was exacerbated when the Filipino rebellion drained Spanish troops out of Cuba. In 1897 with the assassination of Prime Minister Antonio Canovas, Weyler lost his political influence. He again returned to Spain, where he died in Madrid in 1930.

Valeriano Weyler is a significant figure in Spanish history and one of the most controversial. Throughout the years, historical opinion has identified him as both a heroic officer and as a bloody and defeated general, particularly because of his actions during his years in Cuba.

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Scope and Content

The collection includes administrative, military, and personal correspondence between Valeriano Weyler and several individuals during his years as a public officer of the Spanish Government. There are letters and documents from governors, missionaries, and other officials in the Philippines. Newspaper clippings, military documents and hospital records for his years in Canary Islands. It also includes manuscripts, typescripts and reports concerning the activities of the Ten Years War in Cuba, the Carlista War in Spain, the Philippine Guerrillas War, and Barcelona disturbance between 1910 and 1913. Moreover, there are also certificates of merit and offices held by Weyler throughout his career as a Military Attaché in Cuba, Santo Domingo, Haiti, Philippines, Valencia and Cataluña.

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Organization

The arrangement of the papers is chronological and geographical for all Series. The collection was divided in three series arranged by chronological order. Inside each series it was divided into subseries arranged by the geographical destination of Valeriano Weyler.

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Restrictions

Restrictions on Access

There are no access restrictions on this collection.

Restrictions on Use

Permission to publish from these Papers must be obtained in writing from both the University of Connecticut Library and the Owner(s) of the Copyright.

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Related Material

Archives and Special Collections have a substantial collection of materials pertaining to Hispanic History and Culture. For detailed information on these collections please contact the curator or ask at the reference desk.

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Administrative Information

Custodial History

Unknown, possible purchase.

Preferred Citation

[Item, Folder #], Valeriano Weyler Papers. Archives and Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries.

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Bibliography

Diccionario de Historia de España. Dirigida por German Bleiberg. Tomo Tercero N-Z. Madrid: Ediciones de la Revista de Occidente, 1968-1969.

Cardona, Gabriel y Juan Carlos Losada. Weyler, nuestro hombre en La Habana. Barcelona, España: Planeta, 1997.

Mínguez, Bernardino Martín. Política y militarismo; defensa del general Weyler, cuestión palpitante y transcendental. Madrid: Impr. de los Hijos de M. G. Hernández, 1897.

Weyler, Valeriano 1838-1930. Mi mando en Cuba (10 febrero 1896 á 31 octubre 1897): historia militar y política de la última guerra separatista durante dicho mando, por el general Weyler. Madrid: F. González Rojas, 1910-11.

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Detailed Description

Administrative and Military Documentation, 1863-1897
Cuba, Santo Domingo and Haiti, 1863-1897
Cuba
1:1 Army section in Cuba Island, 1863
1:2 Army section in Cuba Island, 1864
1:3 Army section in Cuba Island, 1865
1:4 Army section in Cuba Island, 1866
1:5 Army section in Cuba Island, 1867
1:6 Army section in Cuba Island, 1869
1:7 Army section in Cuba Island, 1870
1:8 Cazadores de Balmaceda Battalion, 1870
1:9 Cazadores de Balmaceda Battalion, 1871
1:10 Army section in Cuba Island, 1871
1:11 Army section in Cuba Island, 1872
1:12 Cazadores de Balmaceda Battalion, 1872
1:13 Rent bills, 1872-1873
1:14 Military ranks obtained in Cuba, 1872
1:15 Military issues in Cuba, 1872-1874
1:16 Newspaper clippings, 1872-1873
1:17 Army section in Cuba Island, 1873
1:18 Military issues in Cuba, 1896-1897
Santo Domingo
1:19 Operation Army Division , 1864
Puerto Rico
1:20 Captaincy General, 1866-1867
Haiti
1:21 High Court of Army in Port Prince, 1872
1:22 High Court of Army in Port Prince, 1873
Spain: Valencia and Cataluña, 1870-1878
Valencia
2:23 Military promotions and examinations, 1870
Carlista War
2:24 Operation Brigade, 1873
2:25 Telegraphic Dispatch Station, 1873
2:26 Captaincy General of Valencia, 1873
2:27 Army of Valencia District, 1873
2:28 Pinar del Rincon Battle, 1873
2:29 Bocairente Battle, 1873
2:30 Telegrams from and to Valencia, 1873-1874
Captaincy General
2:31 Military promotion, 1874
2:32 Indictment, 1876
2:33 Appointments, 1878
Cataluña
Carlista War
2:34 Operation Diary of Cataluña, 1874
2:35 Cataluña Army, 1874
2:36 Telegrams from and to Cataluña, 1874-1875
2:37 Clot de Mala Mata Battle, 1874
Canary Islands, 1879-1885
3:38 Datum plane, undated
3:39 Captaincy General Accounting, 1879
3:40 Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1879
3:41 Las Palmas Municipality, 1879-1880
3:42 National Guard Inspection of Canary Islands Accounting, 1879-1881
3:43 Captaincy General Accounting, 1880
3:44 Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1880
3:45 Provisional Battalion of Canary Islands Accounting, 1880-1883
3:46 Newspaper clippings about Canary Islands Government, 1880-1883
3:47 Pamphlets and Bulletins, 1880-1885
3:48 Captaincy General Accounting, 1881
3:49 Telegrams from and to Canary Islands, 1881
3:50 Administrative records Ministry of War, 1881-1882
3:51 Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1881-1882
3:52 Captaincy General Accounting, 1882 July - September
3:53 Captaincy General Accounting, 1882 October - December
3:54 Weyler's farewell , 1883
3:55 Captaincy General Accounting, 1883 January - February
3:56 Captaincy General Accounting, 1883 March - June
3:57 Captaincy General Accounting, 1883 October - November
Philippines, undated, 1886-1891
Recommendations
4:58 Residents A - F, undated
4:59 Residents G - L, undated
4:60 Residents M - Q, undated
4:61 Residents R - Z, undated
4:62 Officials A - Z, undated
4:63 Aspirant officials A - Z, undated
4:64 Civil and Military Government, Spain and Philippines, undated
4:65 Tobacco General Company , undated
4:66 Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1886
4:67 Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1887
4:68 Captaincy General Administrative Records, 1888
4:69 Civil and Military Government, 1888
4:70 General Government of Manila, 1888
4:71 Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Philippines, 1888
4:72 Consulate of France, 1888
4:73 Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1888
4:74 Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1888
5:75 Civil and Military Government, 1889
5:76 Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1889
5:77 Codina Company, 1889
5:78 Chinese Immigration, 1889
5:79 General Government of Manila, 1889
5:80 General Government, High Court of Justice, Manila, 1889-1890
5:81 General Government, High Court of Justice, Cebu, 1889-1891
5:82 Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1889
5:83 Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1889
5:84 Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1890
5:85 Civil and Military Government Administrative Records, 1890
5:86 Civil and Military Government Administrative Records, 1890
5:87 General Government of Manila, 1890
5:88 Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Philippines, 1890
5:89 General Intendancy of Public Treasury of Philippines, 1890
5:90 Newspaper clipping "La Voz de España", 1890
5:91 Civil Guard, 1890
5:92 General Government of Philippines, Recommendations, 1890
5:93 General Government of Philippines, Recommendations, 1891
5:94 Civil and Military Government, 1891
5:95 Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Spain, 1891
5:96 Civil and Military Government, Letters from and to Philippines, 1891
Political, military, civil and religious government documentation, 1860-1930
Philippines, 1888-1891
Religious
Correspondence (from and to)
6:97 San Juan de Dios, 1888
6:98 Nueva Caceres Bishop, 1888-1889
6:99 San Juan de Letran Order, 1889-1890
6:100 Capuchins Order, 1889-1890
6:101 Dominican Order, 1889-1890
6:102 Missions Administrative Records, 1889
6:103 Missions Administrative Records, 1890
6:104 Missions Administrative Records, 1891
Political-military
Political and military government of
6:105 La Abra, 1888
6:106 Islas Visayas, 1888
6:107 Cebu, 1888
6:108 Carolinas Occidentales, 1888
6:109 Carolinas Orientales, 1888
6:110 Floilo, 1888
6:111 Archipielago de Tolo, 1888
6:112 Cavite, 1888
6:113 Tarlac, 1888
6:114 Mindanao, 1888
6:115 Mindoro, 1888
6:116 La Union, 1888
6:117 Flocos Norte, 1888
6:118 Flocos Sur, 1889
6:119 Camerines Norte, 1889
6:120 Pangasinan, 1888-1889
6:121 Coltabato, 1889-1890
6:122 La Paragua, 1889-1891
6:123 Isla de Negros, 1888-1889
Cataluña, undated, 1909-1930
Political-military
7:124 Captaincy General of Cataluña, undated
7:125 Campaign military operations in Cataluña, undated
7:126 Civil government of Barcelona, undated, 1910
7:127 Barcelona strike, 1909-1910
7:128 Military Hospital of Barcelona, 1901-1913
7:129 Captaincy General of Cataluña, Amnesty Letter, 1909
7:130 Somatenes Armados de Cataluña, 1909
7:131 Captaincy General of Cataluña, Political Letters, 1910
7:132 Captaincy General of Cataluña, Accounting, 1910
7:133 Captaincy General of the 4th Region, Accounting, 1910
7:134 Infantry regiment, 1910
7:135 Military exception of reservist, 1910
7:136 Captaincy General of the 5th Region, 1910
7:137 Prime Minster Council, 1910-1911
7:138 Miltary Government of Gerona, 1910, 1914
7:139 Captaincy General of the 5th Region, Accounting, 1911
7:140 Captaincy General of the 5th Region, Political Letters, 1911
7:141 Captaincy General of Cataluña, Military and social issues, 1911-1912
7:142 Captaincy General of the 4th Region, Diary of orders, 1912
7:143 Army Veterinary Corps of the 4th Region, 1912
7:144 Captaincy General of the 4th Region, Expenses, 1912
7:145 3rd Brigade of Cazadores, 1912
8:146 Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1912
8:147 Barcelona Government, Telegrams, 1912-1915
8:148 Captaincy General of the 4th Region, Accounting, 1913
8:149 Captaincy General of Cataluña, Political Letters, 1913
8:150 Barcelona strike, Telegrams, 1913
8:151 Barcelona strike, Letters, reports and information, 1913
8:152 Barcelona Government, 1913
8:153 Alcover and Villalonga revolt, 1913
8:154 Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1914
8:155 Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1915
8:156 Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1919
8:157 Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1920
8:158 Army Chief Staff of Madrid, 1921
8:159 Cavalcanty Chief Army Correspondence, 1923
Civil
8:160 Barcelona University, 1910
8:161 Visit to Manlleu Village, 1911
8:162 National Lottery, 1911
8:163 Compañia de los Caminos de Hierro del Sur de España, 1911-1912
8:164 Sociedad General de Mercurioo de Sierra Nevada, 1912
8:165 Remonta Nacional, 1913
8:166 Special Letter from Madero President of Mexico, 1913
8:167 Intituto Agricolo Catalan, 1913
8:168 King of Spain's trip to Cataluña, 1920
8:169 Movimiento Societario, 1920
8:170 Anonymous letter, 1930
Spain, 1860-1920
Military
8:171 Army, Balear Islands, 1860-1863
8:172 Army School, 1860-1867
8:173 Captaincy General Castilla La Nueva, 1862, 1872-1875
8:174 San Fernando military order , 1866 March 16
8:175 Military Army, Logroño, 1874
9:176 Military Army, War Ministry, Madrid, 1872-1878
9:177 Captaincy General of Cataluña, 1889
Political
9:178 Encomienda Isabel La Catolica, 1870
9:179 Gran Cruz de la Orden de San Militar de San Hermenegildo, 1886
9:180 Cruz de la Orden de San Fernando, 1898
9:181 Bills in favor of Don Pedro Murias, 1898
Printed Material
9:182 San Fernando Order Statutes, 1863
9:183 War Ministry (Madrid), Liquidation of all military corps, 1886
9:184 General Administration of the Military Army, Disposition, 1887
9:185 Invitation to Junta de Auxilio, 1909
8:186 State Session Diary, 1912
9:187 Partido Socialista Monarquico flyer, 1919
9:188 Representative Session Diary, 1920
Personal Records, undated, 1866-1928
9:189 Valeriano Weyler's sister, undated
9:190 Personal Letters, undated
9:191 Valeriano Weyler's mother's letter, 1866
9:192 Personal Letters, 1888 April
9:193 Personal Letters, 1888 May
9:194 Personal Letters, 1888 June
9:195 Personal Letters, 1888 July
9:196 Personal Letters, 1888 August
9:197 Personal Letters, 1888 September
9:198 Personal Letters, 1888 October
9:199 Sor Maria Asumpta, 1912
9:200 Pablo Blas y Pascual, 1928