Connecticut School Desegregation Collection
2002.0044

Summary Information

Repository
Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries
Creator
Koskoff, Koskoff & Bieder, PC.
Creator
Tirozzi, Gerald.
Title
Connecticut School Desegregation Collection
ID
2002.0044
Date [inclusive]
1965-1994.
Extent
3.55 Linear feet
Language of Materials
English
Abstract
The Connecticut School Desegregation Collection consisits of materials related to the legal issues surrounding school desegregation in Hartford and Bridgeport, Connecticut. The collection provides an overview of the regional and national concerns in the area of desegregation, and two court cases that fought to bring an end to school segregation and discrimination.

Preferred Citation

[Item description, #:#], Connecticut School Desegregation Collection. Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center,  University of Connecticut Libraries.

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History

The issue of desegregation of Connecticut's schools became a legal one in 1975 and continues today. The collection provides an overview of regional and national concerns in the area of desegregation.

In 1989 Milo Sheff, a ten year old fourth grader from  Hartford, CT, joined with seventeen other school children to file a lawsuit against the state of  Connecticut, and Governor  William O'Neill. Alledging that their constitutional rights to a public education and their rights to equal protection under the law were being violated, they called for the state to change its existing policy on educational equality. The case was originally argued in  Hartford Superior Court, and was ruled in favor of the state and the governor. The judge ruled that school officials were not obligated to correct educational inequalities, no matter how they may have come to transpire. Following the finding by the  Superior Court, the case was appealed to the  Connecticut Supreme Court. In 1996 the superior court overruled the lower court's ruling, stating that the state did in fact have an obligation to provide Connecticut's school children with equal educational opportunities. It also ruled that children had a constitutional right to a public education, one that could not be altered based on ethnic or racial background.

The debate surrounding Bridgeport's public school desegregation began in the 1970s and continued throughout the 1980s. In November 1975 the NAACP, the  Spanish American Coalition (SAC), a group of community organizations, and individual black and hispanic parents filed a lawsuit in  U.S. District Court against the  Bridgeport Board of Education, and the  Connecticut State Board of Education. In 1978 the Mayor, Comptroller, and Board of Appointment and Taxation were added as defendants. The lawsuit was filed because the plaintiffs believed the Board of Education had created a dual school system, discriminating against black and hispanic students.

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Scope and Content

The collection contains legal files, documents, reports, studies, correspondence, publications, conference proceedings, papers and similar materials pertaining to two lawsuits concerning the desegregation of Connecticut's public schools.

Series I contains materials related to Connecticut's Sheff v. O'Neill case, 1965-1994, and contains documents issued by state agencies, educational associations and the city of Hartford, as well as reports from academic institutions. Also included is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of the documents compiled by  David R. Gilmore. The exhibits have been arranged chronologically and assigned a file number, which is cross-referenced in the bibliography.

Series II is comprised of the Bridgeport School Desegregation Files (undated, 1972-1983). The series contains publications, papers and conference proceedings collected in connection with the desegregation of the Bridgeport public schools. Also included in the series are reference materials related to school desegregation cases in other American cities. The type of materials in the series are similar in nature to those in Series I and therefore have also been arranged chronologically by publication date.

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Arrangement

Series I: Sheff v. O'Neill ( 1965-1994) contains documents issued by state agencies, educational associations and the city of Hartford, as well as reports from academic institutions. Also included is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of the documents compiled by  David R. Gilmore. The exhibits have been arranged chronologically and assigned a file number, which is cross-referenced in the bibliography.

Series II: Bridgeport School Desegregation Files ( undated, 1972-1983) contains publications, papers and conference proceedings collected in connection with the desegregation of the Bridgeport public schools. The materials are similar in nature to those in Series I and therefore have also been arranged chronologically by publication date.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

 Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries June 2012

University of Connecticut Libraries
405 Babbidge Road Unit 1205
Storrs, Connecticut, 06269-1205
860.486.2524
archives@uconn.edu

Access

The collection is open and available for research.

Restrictions on Use

Permission to publish from these Papers must be obtained in writing from both the University of Connecticut Libraries and the owner(s) of the copyright.

Acquisition Information

The Sheff v. O'Neill materials were donated in 1996, presumably by Mr. Tirozzi (no documentation). The Bridgeport materials were donated in 2001 by the law firm of Koskoff, Koskoff & Bieder.

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Related Materials

Related Material

Archives & Special Collections has a substantial collection of materials pertaining to various aspects of Connecticut history. See especially the Connecticut Civil Liberties Union Records. For detailed information on these collections please contact the curator or ask at the Reading Room desk.

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Controlled Access Headings

Genre(s)

  • Correspondence.
  • Legal Records.
  • Publications.

Occupation(s)

  • Unknown.

Subject(s)

  • Discrimination in education--Connecticut.
  • Educational law and legislation--Connecticut.
  • Minorities--Education--Connecticut--Hartford.
  • School integration--Connecticut--Bridgeport.
  • School integration--Connecticut--Hartford.
  • Segregation in education--Connecticut.
  • Sheff, Milo Trials, litigation, etc.

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Collection Inventory

Series I: Sheff v. O'Neill, 1965-1994 

Bibliography [see also Appendix A], undated 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 1

Exhibits [numbers correspond to bibliography] 

1— Schools for Hartford, 1965 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 2

2— Summary of Harvard Report, 1965 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 3

3— Proposal to Plan and Study School Programs from Children Involved in a Regional Desegregation Plan, 1966 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 4

4— Equality and Quality in the Public Schools: Report of a Conference, 1966 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 5

5— Equality of Education Opportunity, 1966 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 6

6— Policy Statement Concerning Quality of Education for Children in Minority Groups, 1966 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 7

7— Policy Statement Concerning Quality of Education for Children in Minority Groups, 1967 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 8

8— Correspondence from Mr. Steel to Commissioner Sanders; Statement of Policy Proposed for adoption by representatives of NAACP to CT State Board of Education; Statement of Policy on De Facto Segregated Public Schools from Board of Regents, SUNY; Correspondence from NY Commissioner Allen to Local Educational Agencies, 1967 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 9

9— Minority Imbalance in Connecticut Schools, ca. 1967 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 10

10— Memo from Intergroup Education Division to Education Subcommittee, Legislative Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities regarding problem of interdistrict segregation, 1968 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 11

11— De Facto School Segregation and the Student: A Study of the Schools in Connecticut's Five Major Cities, 1968 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 12

12— Changes in Racial Composition and De Facto Segregation in Pupils in the Public Schools of Five Connecticut Cities: 1963-1967, 1969 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 13

13— A Study of Urban School Needs in the Five Largest Cities in Connecticut, 1969 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 14

14— Report of the Legislative Commission on Human Rights and opportunities, 1969 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 15

15— Racial Imbalance and Regionalization, 1969 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 16

16— Public Act No. 773: An Act Concerning Racial Imbalance in the Public Schools, 1969 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 17

17— Preliminary Report on the Distribution of Minority-Group Pupils in Connecticut Public Schools, 1968-1969, ca. 1969 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 18

18— Complaint in Lumpkin v. Dempsey, 1970 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 19

19— Community Development Action Plan: Education 1971-1975, 1970 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 20

20— Complaint in Hartford v. Meskill, 1972 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 21

21— Memorandum Summarizing Plaintiff's Proof in Lumpkin v. Meskill, 1972 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 22

22— Financing Connecticut's Schools: Final Report of the Commission to Study School Finance and Equal Educational Opportunity, 1975 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   1: 23

23— A Plan for Promoting Equal Educational Opportunity in Connecticut, 1979 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 24

24— Advancing Equal Education Opportunity and Access to Quality Integrated Education in the Public Schools of the State of CT, ca. 1980 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 25

25— Advisory Report: Policy and Planning Implications, 1981 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 26

26— A Plan for Compliance with the Racial Imbalance Regulations of the Connecticut State Department of Education, 1981 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 27

27— Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 31, pp. 230-239, 1983 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 28

28— Connecticut's Challenge: An Agenda for Educational Equity and Excellence, 1984 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 29

29— A Report Providing Background Information Concerning the Chronology and Status of Statutes, Regulations, and Processes Regarding Racial Imbalance in CT Schools, 1984 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 30

30— Interim Report of the Racial Imbalance Law and Regulations Advisory Committee, 1985 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 31

31— Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 1985 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 32

32— School Desegregation and Black Occupational Attainments: Results from a Long-term Experiment, 1985 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 33

33— The Issue of Racial Imbalance and Quality Education in Connecticut's Public Schools, 1986 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 34

34— Circular Letter C-15 on the State Board of Education Policy Statement on Equal Educational Opportunity, 1986 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 35

35— Metropolitan Education, 1, pp. 65-77, 1986 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 36

36— Connecticut's Common Core of Learning, 1987 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 37

37— Report from the Bilingual Education Legislation Review Task Force to the Commissioner of Education, 1987 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 38

38— Composite document containing deliberations on Racial Imbalance Act Regulations, 1969-1987 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 39

39— Connecticut State Department of Education Report on the Recommendations Issued by the Bilingual Education Legislation Review Task Force, 1987 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 40

40— Briefing on Existing State Programs, ca. 1987 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 41

41— A Report on Racial/Ethnic Equity and Desegregation in Connecticut's Public Schools, 1988 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 42

42— Alternate Proposal to Address Racial Imbalance, 1988 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 43

43— Background and Discussion Paper on School Racial/Ethnic Balance, 1988 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 44

44— Indicators of Success: A Report on Progress in Implementing the Goals and Objectives of “Design for Excellence: Connecticut's Comprehensive Plan for Elementary, Secondary, Vocational, Career and Adult Education, 1988 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   2: 45

45— Quality and Integrated Education: Options for Connecticut, 1989 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 46

46— Cover Memo and Copy of Governor Weicker's Charge to the Commission on Quality and Integrated Education, 1989 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 47

47— Governor's Commission on Quality and Integrated Education Request for Foundation Support: Prospectus, 1989 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 48

48— A Pastoral Statement on School Desegregation in Connecticut, 1989 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 49

49— Review of Research on School Desegregation's Impact on Elementary, 1989 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 50

50— In Pursuit of Promise, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 51

51— Challenge for Excellence” Connecticut's Comprehensive Plan for Elementary, Secondary, Vocational, Career and Adult Education: A Policy Plan 1991-1995, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 52

52— Addendum to Background and Discussion Paper on School Racial/Ethnic Balance, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 53

53— Interoffice Memorandum on Crossing the Bridge to Equity and Excellence: A Vision of Quality and Integrated Education for CT, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 54

54— Chronology of State of CT Activities Advancing Racial/Ethnic Equity and Desegregation in CT's Public Schools w/ Cover Memo re State Racial Imbalance Laws, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 55

55— Special Connecticut Mastery Test Report: Students at Risk Academically, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 56

56— PAQIE: Inventory of Progress to Reduce Racial Imbalance, with cover memo from Joan Martin, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 57

57— Next Steps re “Quality and Integrated Education: Options for CT, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 58

58— Critical Components of Integration Plans, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 59

59— Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in CT Public Higher Education: The First Five Years 1985-1990, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 60

60— Statewide Evaluation of the Priority School District Program: A Second Triennial Report, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 61

61— Crossing the Bridge to Equality and Excellence: A Vision of Quality and Integrated Education for CT, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 62

62— Getting to the Heart of the Matter: Key Strategies for Achieving High Quality and True Integration in CT's School: An Addendum to the Draft Report of the Governor's Commission on Quality and Integrated Education, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 63

63— Connecticut's Education Initiative: The Vision and Reality, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 64

64— Indicators of Success: A Report on Progress in Implementing the Goals and Objectives of “Design for Excellence: CT's Comprehensive Plan for Elementary, Secondary, Vocational, Career and Adult Education, 1986-1990, 1990 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 65

65— Meeting the Challenge: Condition of Education in Connecticut, 1990/91, 1991 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 66

66— Tables of Desegregation, Expenditures, Demographics, and Attitude Survey Data, Connecticut and Nationwide, 1991 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 67

67— Final Evaluation Report: 1990-1991 Hartford Project Concern Program, with Appendix: Almost 25 years of Project Concern: An Overview of the Program and its Accomplishments, 1991 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 68

68— Proposed Integration, Desegregation and Racial Balance Bills in CT, 1981-1991, 1991 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 69

69— A Major Proposal for the Restructuring of CT's Educational Delivery System, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   3: 70

70— A Proposed Three Year Design for the Project Concern Evaluation, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 71

71— Connecticut's Limited-English-Proficient Students: A Neglected Resource, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 72

72— Solutions for CT's Public Schools in the 1990s and Beyond, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 73

73— The Urban Agenda, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 74

74— Connecticut Recruitment Network for Educational Diversity: Its Forum, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 75

75— Finding Niches: Desegregated Students Sixteen Years Later—Final Report on the Educational Outcomes of Project Concern, Hartford, Connecticut, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 76

76— Minority Students and Staff Report, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 77

77— Environmental Factors Influencing Educational Program Outcomes: A Review of Research, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 78

78— State Department of Education Activities in Response to Recommendations Proposed in “Crossing the Bridge to Equality and Excellence”, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 79

79— Total Education (Draft), 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 80

80— Cover Memo to Attys. Tegeler and Stone re Exhibit 498, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 81

81— A Descriptive Study of the Educational Resources of the Hartford Public Schools and Disparities with other Districts, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 82

82— Major State Policies and Programs affecting Public Education, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 83

83— Plaintiff's Opening Argument in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 84

84— Opening Statement by Professor John Brittain in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 85

85— Opening Statement by Assistant Attorney General John Whelan in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 86

86— Indicators of Success: A Report of Progress in Implementing the Goals and Objectives of “Challenge for Excellence: Connecticut's Comprehensive Plan for Elementary, Secondary, Vocational, Career and Adult Education—A Policy Plan 1991-1995”, 1992 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 87

87— A Voice and a Choice for Connecticut: Governor Weicker Unveils Plan for Quality, Integrated Schools, 1993 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 88

88— Memorandum to CSDE Associated Commissioners and Bureau Chiefs re Testimony of Witnesses in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1993 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 89

89— Defendants' Post-Trial Brief in Sheff v. O'Neill, CV 89-0360977S, 1993 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   4: 90

90— Plaintiff's Post-Trial Brief in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1993 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   5: 91

91— Plaintiff's Reply Brief in Sheff v. O'Neill, 1993 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   5: 92

92— Public Act No. 93-263 An Act Improving Educational Quality and Diversity, 1993 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   5: 93

93— Guide for the Local Advisory Process under Public Act 93-263, An Act Improving Educational Quality and Diversity, 1993 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   5: 94

94— Report on School Desegregation Survey, 1993 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   5: 95

95— Request for Proposals: Interdistrict Cooperative Grant 1994-1995, 1994 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   5: 96

96— Request for Proposals: Interdistrict Magnet School under the Interdistrict Cooperative Grant, 1994 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   5: 97

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Series II: Bridgeport School Desegregation Files , (undated, 1972-1983) 

School Desegregation Organizers' Manual, undated 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 98

Bridgeport School Desegregation—Twenty Questions and Answers, undated 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 99

Your Child and Busing, 1972 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 100

It's Not the Distance, “It's the Niggers.” Comments on the Controversy over School Busing, 1972 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 101

School Desegregation in Ten Communities, 1973 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 102

Equal Opportunity in Suburbia, 1974 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 103

Continuing Challenge: The Past and Future of Brown v. Board of Education, 1975 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 104

Making Civil Rights Sense out of Revenue Sharing Dollars, 1975 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 105

Twenty Years after Brown: Equality of Educational Opportunity, 1975 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 106

Law and Contemporary Problems, v. 39, #2, 1975 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 107

Citizen Guide to Desegregation: A Report of the Citizens' Council for Ohio Schools, 1976 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 108

University of Chicago School Review, v. 84, #3, 1976 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 109

School Desegregation—Making It Work, 1976 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   6: 110

Fulfilling the Letter and Spirit of the Law: Desegregation of the Nation's Public Schools, 1976 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 111

School Desegregation in Colorado Springs, CO, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 112

Adopt-A-School Dallas Style: A Community Participation Model, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 113

School Desegregation in Kalamazoo, MI, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 114

School Desegregation in Ogden, UT, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 115

School Desegregation in Erie, PA, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 116

School Desegregation in Minneapolis, MN, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 117

Viewpoints and Guidelines on Court Appointed Citizens Monitoring Commissions in School Desegregation, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 118

School Desegregation in Williamsburg County, SC, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 119

School Desegregation in Peoria, IL, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 120

School Desegregation in Little Rock, AR., 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 121

School Desegregation in Nashville-Davidson, TN, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 122

School Desegregation in Racine, WI, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 123

School Desegregation in Kirkwood, MO, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 124

School Desegregation in Santa Barbara, CA, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 125

School Desegregation in Greenville, MS, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 126

School Desegregation in Waterloo, IA, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 127

School Desegregation in Ossining, NY, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 128

School Desegregation in Berkeley, CA, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 129

Government, Politics and the Public Schools: A Preliminary Study of Three Cities, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 130

Desegregation and Black Achievement (Working Paper), 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 131

School Desegregation in Metropolitan Areas: Choices and Prospects, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 132

Urban School Desegregation Costs. Part I. Case Studies, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   7: 133

Integrated Education, Issue #90, v. 15, #6, 1977 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 134

Evaluation of the Impact of ESEA Title VII Spanish/English Bilingual Education Program v. III, 1978 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 135

Resolving the Desegregation Issue in the St. Louis Public Schools. Part I, 1978 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 136

Citizen Guide to Quality Education: A Report of the Citizens' Council for Ohio Schools, 1978 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 137

Desegregation: Problems, Successes and Next Steps, 1978 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 138

Report and Recommendations of the Joint Select Committee on School Desegregation to the Ohio General Assembly, 1978 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 139

Resolving the Desegregation Issue in the St. Louis Public Schools. Part II, 1978 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 140

Orderly Schools that Serve All Children, 1979 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 141

Progress—A Report of Desegregation Trends in the States, 1980 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 142

Legal Analysis—Trends in School Desegregation Law #4, 1980 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 143

State Leadership Toward Desegregating Education: A Positive Future, 1980 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 144

procedural Manual for Monitoring, Dispute Resolution and Modification of Federal Desegregation Court Orders in the Boston Public Schools, 1983 


    Box Folder
Mixed materials   8: 145

APPENDIX A, PA 93-263 Evaluation Project, 

THIRTY CONNECTICUT YEARS: A Bibliography of Desegregation Activity in Connecticut, by David R. Gilmore. 1965-1944 

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